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    Product characteristic asked for or dictated (eg. Production, time) to ensure a target-oriented development.

    requirement list

    Regarding access and liability structured collection of all requirements for the product in development. The requirements contained in the list (permanent, minimum or desired requirements) are the basis for selecting and optimizing solutions.

    effect (physical)

    A physical effect is a physical phenomenon that shows a reproduceable correlation between observed variables or characteristics within a defined system.

    effect carrier

    Effect carriers are real material elements that realize an effect.

    degree of freedom

    A system's degree of freedom is the number of independent motions that can be executed within a state space.


    The function of a technical system is the intended reproduceable correlation between input and output variables or between the initial and final state of materials, energy or information that the system is meant to produce.

    function (physical)

    Physical correlations are formulated mathematically and written down in form of equations.

    function variable

    Function variables are values describing power (eg. P=M*ω) or work (eg. ∫ F ds). Examples are torque, impulse, pressure, volumetric flow rate, voltage and electric current.


    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, S.784]

    The configuration is influenced by form, position, size and number of technical structures. The process of designing is the connection between configuration and material.


    Through their inherent logic tools can aid in the application of methods for information allocation, process support and management, representation of product models and/ or  documentation.


    The entirety of actions that compiles and documents the information necessary for a system to be realized based on the given task.

    construction variable

    Construction variables are quantities that describe spatial relationships (eg. r in m*ω2*r or l in B*I*l), energy content (eg. c in c/2*s2 or m in 1/2 *m*v2) or frictional loss (eg. μ in μ*Fn*v, R in R*I2)  through function variables. Examples are mass, spring rigidity, damping constant, friction coefficient, capacity and induction.

    design catalog

    Design catalogs are information stores that are perfectly suited for methodical design regarding their content, access possibilities and structure. Special features are relative completeness, clear classification (systematic) and existence of selection characteristics.

    conceptual design

    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, S.195]

    One aspect of designing is the conceptual design which defines the principal solution after defining the task through abstraction of the main problems, establishing the function structures and finding suitable working structures.

    solution catalog


    Solution catalogs are one kind of design catalogs that assign solutions to specific functions or tasks that can be augmented by boundary conditions.

    solution concept

    The solution concept is a fixed principal solution gained during the principle phase.

    solution variant

    A solution variant is one of many solutions that emerges through combination of working principles to a working structure during the principle phase.


    A method provides operatively applicable thinking and behavior patterns that help with reaching a set goal.


    Methodology is the branch of science that deals with the framework of methods. In product development, a methodology is a frame for the (goal-oriented) application of methods.


    Models are functional abstractions/ reductions of real phenomena, objects and / or correlations so that they can be illustrated in a controllable and transparent manner.

    object catalog


    Object catalogs are one kind of design catalogs that contain independent from the task all basic, general data necessary for design especially in the areas of physics, geometry, technology and material.

    operation catalog


    Operation catalogs are one kind of design catalogs that contain operations (procedural steps) or operation sequences (procedures) that are of interest during methodological design as well as their conditions of application and operational criteria.

    principle solution

    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, S.786]

    A principle solution is a combination of working principles for accomplishing the overall functions and ideas of concretion.


    A task can constitute as a problem if at that point the approach to finding a solution is entirely or partially unknown.


    A product is the result of processes of designing and developing, which is manufactured and/or used.

    modular product system

    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007]

    A modular product system contains all kinds of machines, assemblies and components that can fulfill various functions by combining the elements  in different ways.

    product environment

    All systems, that at some point are connected to the product in a relevant manner, are part of the product environment
    (relevant means interaction, quality relationships or spatiotemporal relations).


    Signals are energetic carriers of information for example time-varying quantities, forces, paths, electric currents, ...


    disruptive effect

    Disruptive effects are functional, manufacturing or operational effects that can appear as boundary conditions during the realization of physical effects, production or in the company. Examples are deflection through empty weight, shrinkage stress when welding or corrosion through sea breeze.


    A system is the entirety of all connected elements that is isolated from the environment.

    technical system

    A technical system is the connected entirety of all technically created elements that purposefully establishes a connection between input and output variables.

    procedure model

    A procedure model illustrates the sequence of actions and aims to aid in the planning, checking and reflecting process as well as the orientation within the sequence.


    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, S.786]

    A technical system's mechanism is the accomplishment of its functions through certain working principles.

    working principle

    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, 786]

    A working principle is a maxim from that one derives a certain effect for accomplishing the function.

    working surface

    [Pahl&Beitz&Feldhusen&Grote, 2007, S.785]

    A working surface is an area in which an effect can be enforced or enabled.


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